# String processing in Tor¶

Since you’re reading about a C program, you probably expected this section: it’s full of functions for manipulating the (notoriously dubious) C string abstraction. I’ll describe some often-missed highlights here.

## Comparing strings and memory chunks¶

We provide strcmpstart() and strcmpend() to perform a strcmp with the start or end of a string.

tor_assert(!strcmpstart("Hello world","Hello"));
tor_assert(!strcmpend("Hello world","world"));

tor_assert(!strcasecmpstart("HELLO WORLD","Hello"));
tor_assert(!strcasecmpend("HELLO WORLD","world"));


To compare two string pointers, either of which might be NULL, use strcmp_opt().

To search for a string or a chunk of memory within a non-null terminated memory block, use tor_memstr or tor_memmem respectively.

We avoid using memcmp() directly, since it tends to be used in cases when having a constant-time operation would be better. Instead, we recommend tor_memeq() and tor_memneq() for when you need a constant-time operation. In cases when you need a fast comparison, and timing leaks are not a danger, you can use fast_memeq() and fast_memneq().

It’s a common pattern to take a string representing one or more lines of text, and search within it for some other string, at the start of a line. You could search for “\ntarget”, but that would miss the first line. Instead, use find_str_at_start_of_line.

## Parsing text¶

Over the years, we have accumulated lots of ways to parse text – probably too many. Refactoring them to be safer and saner could be a good project! The one that seems most error-resistant is tokenizing text with smartlist_split_strings(). This function takes a smartlist, a string, and a separator, and splits the string along occurrences of the separator, adding new strings for the sub-elements to the given smartlist.

To handle time, you can use one of the functions mentioned above in “Parsing and encoding time values”.

For numbers in general, use the tor_parse_{long,ulong,double,uint64} family of functions. Each of these can be called in a few ways. The most general is as follows:

  const int BASE = 10;
const int MINVAL = 10, MAXVAL = 10000;
const char *next;
int ok;
long lng = tor_parse_long("100", BASE, MINVAL, MAXVAL, &ok, &next);


The return value should be ignored if “ok” is set to false. The input string needs to contain an entire number, or it’s considered invalid… unless the “next” pointer is available, in which case extra characters at the end are allowed, and “next” is set to point to the first such character.

## Generating blocks of text¶

For not-too-large blocks of text, we provide tor_asprintf(), which behaves like other members of the sprintf() family, except that it always allocates enough memory on the heap for its output.

For larger blocks: Rather than using strlcat and strlcpy to build text, or keeping pointers to the interior of a memory block, we recommend that you use the smartlist_* functions to build a smartlist full of substrings in order. Then you can concatenate them into a single string with smartlist_join_strings(), which also takes optional separator and terminator arguments.

As a convenience, we provide smartlist_add_asprintf(), which combines the two methods above together. Many of the cryptographic digest functions also accept a not-yet-concatenated smartlist of strings.

## Logging helpers¶

Often we’d like to log a value that comes from an untrusted source. To do this, use escaped() to escape the nonprintable characters and other confusing elements in a string, and surround it by quotes. (Use esc_for_log() if you need to allocate a new string.)

It’s also handy to put memory chunks into hexadecimal before logging; you can use hex_str(memory, length) for that.

The escaped() and hex_str() functions both provide outputs that are only valid till they are next invoked; they are not threadsafe.